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Hayden was born in Chile, but later moved to North America for the educational opportunities. In 1886 she became the first woman to be admitted to the undergraduate architecture program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where she eventually graduated with honours. Hayden’s thesis project demonstrated her command of the classical orders, which she would later employ in her winning competition entry for an exhibition hall known as the Women’s Building for the 1893 international exposition in Chicago.

Sophia Hayden

1868 - 1953

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Born in Enniscorthy, Ireland, Gray’s work ranges from furniture to architecture. She studied art at the Slade School of Fine Art at the University of London, and moved to Paris thereafter to study lacquer work and develop her furniture designs. Notable work includes the Bibendum Chair in 1930, and E.1027. The latter explores the interface between public and private through the use of screens (a fascination that originated during her stay in Paris).

Eileen Gray

1878 - 1976

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Born in Helsinki, Finland, Aalto is a pioneer of Scandinavian design. In 1913 she attended the University of Helsinki, where she met her future business partner and husband, Alvar Aalto. The pair collaborated with Maire Gullichsen and Nils Gustav Hahl to found Artek, a furniture company built on the foundations of functionalism. There, Aalto managed the industrial art department until 1941, and eventually became the managing director of the company until 1949. Aalto and her husband designed the Villa Mairea in 1938, and she is responsible for the interior.

Aino Aalto

1894 - 1949

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Born in Berlin, Germany, Albers is best known for her exploration of weaving and abstraction. She initially joined the Bauhaus (in 1922) to become a fine artist, but instead joined the weaving workshop, eventually becoming the head. She was one of the few women to achieve this, and went on to publish a book, On Weaving, in 1965. Considered by many to be groundbreaking with regards to the theory, practice and history of weaving, the book would help to develop the artform for years to come.

Anni Albers

1899 -1994

Sophia Gray

1814 - 1871

Responsible for the design of more than 40 Anglican churches in South Africa during the 1800s, Gray is widely regarded as the country’s first female architect. Her particular focus was the Gothic Revival Style, examples of which can be seen at the annual Sophia Gray Lecture and Exhibition held by the School of Architecture at the University of the Free State. She was born in Yorkshire, England, and married Bishop Robert Gray in 1836. In 1848 they moved to South Africa, where she began contributing to the South African architectural landscape.

Marion Mahony Griffin

1871 - 1961

After graduating from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1894, Mahony Griffin became one of the first licensed female architects in the USA. Her work is often viewed as inseparable from her employer Frank Lloyd Wright, and later her husband Walter Griffin. She was admired for her artistic talents and produced beautifully rendered drawings that became synonymous with the style of the Prairie School. Over her 50 year career, Mahony Griffin also worked in India and Australia where she was actively involved in environmental and planning matters.

Lilly Reich

1885 - 1947

Born in Berlin, Germany, Reich was known for her modernist approach to architecture and furniture design. She initially trained as an industrial embroiderer in 1908, and worked in the Viennese workshop of Josef Hoffman. Notable pieces were collaborations with Mies van der Rohe, namely the Barcelona Chair, Tugendhat House, and Barcelona Pavilion. She became the second ever Bauhaus master, and headed up the interior design workshop in 1932.

Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky

1897 - 2000

Born in Vienna, Austria, Schutte-Lihotzky’s most well-known work is the Frankfurt kitchen. This particular design was created after her research into the everyday lives of the masses, and driven by her desire to create more accessible private spaces for the public. She studied and developed her design approach at the Vienna School of Arts and Crafts, and many consider her to be the school’s first female architectural graduate. Other key works include kindergarten pavilions, and her work in developing specifications for large-scale housing.


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Carmen Velasco Portinho

Portinho was a civil engineer and urban planner who is lauded for her contributions to both the built environment and feminist agenda in Brazil. She is recognised for her role in establishing the right for women to vote, but her pursuit for equality also extended into her work. Portinho was head of the Popular Housing Department, which successfully constructed several social housing projects in Rio de Janeiro. Most notable is the Pedregulho housing complex, designed in collaboration with her husband Afonso Eduardo Reidy, which is considered a masterpiece of modernism.

1903 - 2001

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Etel Mittag Fodor

Mittag-Fodor was a Bauhaus photographer and artist. She began her career at the Bauhaus in 1928 after studying at the Álmos Jaschik private arts school, and the Institute of Graphic Research and Education in Vienna. Though she initially studied to be a commercial graphic artist, her time at the Bauhaus was spent developing her photographic skills under Walter Peterhans. Her notable works include Photographic study with toy pistol and sugarcubes (1928) and Advertising image for Indanthren-Barben (1929).

1905 - 2005

Sibyl Moholy Nagy

1903 - 1971

Moholy-Nagy was an architectural historian, critic and lecturer. Born in Germany, she moved to the USA with her husband László who was a central figure at the Bauhaus. Here she began teaching architectural theory and history at various academic institutes and at 47 published her first of many books. In her writings, she strongly criticised modernist architecture, including the work of Bauhaus alumni, and instead advocated for looking to the past and vernacular architecture to create a better urban environment. In 1970 she was honoured with the AIA’s “Critic of the Year” award.

Charlotte Perriand

1903 - 1999

Perriand is known for her tubular and swivel furniture in the 1920s and 30s. She studied furniture design at the École de l’Union Centrale des Arts Décoratifs, and went on to lead a group of architects in the design of Les Arcs, a french ski resort. The resort had a staggered design so as to fit more naturally into the mountain landscape. Other notable works include the B-301 Basculant Lounge Chair (1929), and the LC4 Lounging Chair (1928).


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Ray Eames

Eames was an American designer who specialised in furniture, textiles, and architecture. She and her partner, Charles, are known for their plywood furniture and Case Study 8 (also known at the Eames House). The front facade of the Eames House was inspired by her art studies, and a notable Mondrian influence is present in the colourful panels. Notably, the Eames House makes use of standardised, mass-produced parts from builders’ catalogues.

1912 - 1988

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Jane Jacobs

As an American-Canadian journalist, author and activist, Jacobs is best known for her influence on urban studies, sociology and economics. Though she had no formal training as a planner, she has made great strides in the field. Her publication, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, and her work with grassroots movements to protect neighbourhoods from urban renewal and slum clearance strategies, are examples of this. Her achievements include derailing the car-centered approaches to city planning.

1916 - 2006

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Gladys Mgudlandlu

Mgudlandlu is a recipient of The Order of Ikhamanga, silver class, awarded for her pioneering contribution to visual arts in South Africa. Born in the Peddie district near Grahamstown, Mgudlandlu is a self-taught artist. She often used several viewpoints in her work, namely ground-level perspectives when depicting animals, and high vantage points in her landscapes. Her work carries a deep spiritual and symbolic importance, and she has achieved success despite criticism from her contemporaries.

1917 - 1979

Jane Drew

1911 - 1996

Drew was one of the founders of the modern movement in Britain represented by the Modern Architectural ReSearch (MARS). She completed her studies at the AA School of London in 1929 and established the firm ‘Fry, Drew and Partners’ with her husband after WWII. Drew worked across the world with her most notable project being the housing developments in Chandigargh, India, which was a collaboration with Le Corbusier. Other public buildings include the University of Ibadan in Nigeria and various schools in Ghana. In 1996, Drew received the Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire.

Lina Bo Bardi

1914 - 1992

Born and raised in Italy, Bardi moved to Brazil in 1945, where she fully developed as a modern architect. Her most significant brutalist work, the Sesc Pompéia in São Paulo, was converted from a working factory to a cultural centre for the public. Bardi also designed The Glass House, where she and her husband, Pietro Maria, resided. Influenced by the Dom-Ino house, the Glass House seems to float between the trees of the Mata Atlãntica forest on thin pilotis.

Florence Knoll

1917 - 2019

Knoll (also Knoll-Bassett), of the furniture company, Knoll in the USA, had a significant role in the company’s aesthetic development. In addition to her official role designing office interiors, she was the architect behind the Knoll Planning Unit. This solidified her role as a creator of space, as well as a decorator. She is also responsible for the now widely-recognised standard of the mid-century modern interior. Her meticulous methods and rigorous design methodology can be attributed to her advanced schooling and extended travels. She was also mentored by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.


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Urmila Eulie Chowdhury

Chowdhury is best known as the first qualified female architect in India. She completed her architectural studies in Japan and Sydney, after which she studied music and ceramic design. She was involved in the team who worked with Le Corbusier on the design of Chandigarh. Her most well known architectural projects include the Polytechnic College for Women and the Home Science College. Chowdhury’s buildings illustrate her fascination with bricks and how simplicity and boldness can be achieved in conjunction with economy and workability.

1923 - 1995

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Norma Merrick Sklarek

Sklarek was a pioneering African-American architect known for pioneering many firsts in the field. She was the first African-American woman to graduate from Columbia University School of Architecture in 1950, and the first African-American to be a member of the AIA (American Institute of Architects), amongst many other titles. She is credited, alongside Cesar Pelli, for her role as design architect for the US embassy in Tokyo. Many of Sklarek’s career highlights deal with issues that concern the lack of cultural diversity in the profession.

1926 - 2012

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Beverly Willis

Willis is an American architect, philanthropist and author whose contributions span across many disciplines. Some of her most notable achievements include pioneering adaptive reuse projects and developing in-house software for large scale land planning. Willis is also credited for creating architectural concepts and practices that have influenced many American cities. Additionally, she founded a eponymous organization to help advance the knowledge and recognition of women's contributions to architecture.

1928 -

Anne Griswold Tyng

1920 - 2011

Tyng was an architect, academic and pioneering geometric theorist. She graduated from Harvard University in 1944 where she studied architecture under both Gropius and Breuer. For most of her career, Tyng worked closely with architect Louis Kahn where her development of space frame architecture contributed to the structural concept for the futuristic City Tower and the triangular ceiling grid design at Yale University. In 1975 Tyng obtained her Phd titled ‘Simultaneousness, Randomness and Order’ from the University of Pennsylvania, where she also taught architecture for 27 years.

Gwendoline Elizabeth Fagan

1924 -

Fagan is a South African researcher and winner of the Simon van der Stel Foundation - Heritage South Africa Gold Medal (1992). She initially trained and worked as a medical practitioner, but later joined her husband, architect Gabriël Fagan, as a historical researcher and landscape planner. She boasts a diverse collection of research publications and books. Her influential body of work, engaging the design and restoration of historical landscapes, has earned her honorary memberships at various architectural and planning Institutes.

Alison Smithson

1928 - 1993

Smithson was a British architect who was at the forefront of New Brutalism, an architectural movement that stressed spartan functionality and a stark presentation of structure and materials, including exposed concrete and visible service conduits. She was born Alison Gill and studied at the University of Durham, where she met fellow student and future husband Peter Smithson. They began a joint practice and a seamless partnership in which they shared credit for everything they designed or wrote.


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Esther Mahlangu

Mahlangu is a well-respected South African artist and educator, known for her bold, large-scale contemporary paintings and murals that reference her Ndebele heritage. She was the first woman to take part in the BMW Art Car Project (other artists involved include Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein), and painted her geometric patterns on a BMW 525i in 1991. She founded an art school in the backyard of her home in Mabhoko, Mpumalanga with the goal of preserving her cultural heritage. Mahlangu’s work is featured in collections around the world.

1935 -

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Mira Fassler Kamstra

Fassler-Kamstra is a South African architect and lecturer. She graduated from the University of the Witwatersrand in 1961, and her career spans 50 years, covering an extensive and wide-ranging body of work. She is known for her work at the Saheti schools and House de la Harpe, which earned her the SAIA Award of Merit in 1977 and 1981. She has a significant knowledge of architectural conservation and landscape design, and for this she was awarded a Gold Medal for House LP Collet in Inanda by the SA Landscapers Institute in 2007.

1938 -

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Adèle Naudé Santos

Santos (FAIA) is a South African-born architect and planner whose career combines professional practice, research and teaching. She served as the Dean of the School of Architecture and Planning at MIT from 2003-2014. She is also principal architect in the San Francisco-based firm, Santos Prescott and Associates, which focuses on architecture that is socially and contextually responsible. Santos has won several international design competitions, is published in journals world-wide, and has worked in cultures as diverse as Japan, Africa and the United States.

1938 -

Denise Scott Brown

1931 -

Scott Brown is a South African-born American architect. She co-authored the seminal Learning from Las Vegas, published in 1972, which cemented her position as one of the most influential architects of the 20th century. She is credited as one of the founders of the postmodern movement, and was awarded the Jane Drew Prize in 2017 as recognition for her contributions to the profession. Her influence and impact in architecture, planning, theoretical writing, and teaching, in partnership with her husband Robert Venturi, is the subject of much debate concerning the recognition of joint contributions in a male dominated field.

Bessie Emery Head

1937 -

Head trained and worked as a teacher and journalist in apartheid South Africa, before going into exile and becoming Botswana's most influential writer. She advocated for indigenous southern Africans’ sense of belonging in their own land, and in 2006 she was honoured with the Literary Posthumous Award at the South African Literary Awards. Her writings were influenced by her own experience, and her books, When Rain Clouds Gather, Maru and A Question of Power still resonate with audiences today.

Trudy Groenewald & Debbie Preller

1938 -

This duo established their Cape Town firm in 1990 after years of work in countries across the world. This global experience instilled a sense of the importance of context when designing local projects. Their designs are free of ostentation, and instead favour dignified designs with integrity. A large portion of their work focuses on previously marginalised communities, and they aim to address various socio-economic challenges. Groenewald became the first female president of the Cape Institute of Architects in 1992, followed by Preller’s turn in the same seat in 2004.


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Yasmeen Lari

Lari is Pakistan’s first female architect, the co-founder of the Heritage Foundation of Pakistan and the recipient of the 2020 Jane Drew Prize for her role in highlighting the profile of women in architecture. The philosophy "barefoot social architecture" was introduced by Lari as a method to assist marginalized communities in socially and environmentally sustainable ways. Her work such as the Finance and Trade Centre and the Pakistan State Oil House in Karachi continues to act as prominent landmarks in the Pakistani landscape for their architectural elegance.

1941 -

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Julia Bolles-Wilson

Bolles-Wilson is a German architect, Professor, former Dean of the Münster School of Architecture and cofounder of the award winning architecture firm Bolles-Wilson established in 1980. She believes that architecture is an amalgamation of concept, usefulness, the everyday and the extraordinary which is evident in her work. Bolles-Wilson is the recipient of the ‘Künstlerpreis’ (‘Artist’s Award’) from North-Rhine Westphalia for her commitment to the German Academy for Urban Planning and since 2014 has been an International Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects.

1948 -

Itsuko Hasegawa

1941 -

Hasegawa, founder of Tokyo based practice Itsuko Hasegawa Atelier, is the recipient of the Royal Academy of Arts Architecture prize awarded for her contribution towards the field. Respected as one of Japan’s most important architects, Hasegawa was influenced by her predecessors who pioneered the Metabolist movement. She went on to cultivate her own form of experimental architecture, her most notable projects being the Sumida Culture Factory and the Yamanashi Museum of Fruit.

Vivienne Japaha

1945 - 1999

Japha ran a research-based practice in Cape Town, and was the second woman to be elected President of the South African Institute of Architects in 1998. Her interest in conservation-planning led to numerous published papers on the subject of architecture. Noteworthy works include her research in the field of policy planning, and thought provoking curriculum content at the UCT School of Architecture and Planning.


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Toshiko Mori

Mori’s work is influenced by fashion, poetry and art, and she carries these inspirations into her work in order to create designs that act as positive catalysts for those who engage with them. She founded her architecture firm in 1981 in New York, and her dedication to material innovation and conceptual clarity earned her tenure at the Harvard Graduate School of Architecture. She is the first woman to earn this accolade, and has been a professor there since 1995.

1951 -

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Anne Lacaton

Lacaton is a French architect, and founder of Lacaton & Vassal. She formed the firm with her partner, Jean-Phillippe Vassal, in 1989. Together they gained global acclaim for their transformative work in social housing. Her work focuses on architectural economy, namely the use of lower cost construction techniques to create dignified, contemporary designs. Lacaton & Vassal received the Mies van der Rohe Award in 2019.

1955 -

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Petra Blaisse

Blaisse is the founder of Amsterdam-based studio, Inside Outside, established in 1991. The studio specialises in landscape architecture, exhibitions and interior design. As the name suggests, her designs focus on both interior and exterior spaces, and the relationship between the two. Blaisse is also inspired by textile design and set design. Her notable work includes the 2012 Dutch Pavilion at the Venice Biennale of Architecture, called Re-Set, which emphasised the ephemeral experience of the space through the continuous movement of the curtains.

1955 -

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Ora Joubert

As a South African architect, academic and writer, Joubert was the driving force and editor of 10+ Years 100+ Buildings: Architecture in a Democratic South Africa. She is currently a private practitioner and affiliated professor at both the University of the Free State and the University of Pretoria. Joubert’s work has been featured in The Phaidon Atlas of Contemporary World Architecture, and has been lauded internationally with her inclusion of the list of 40 Architects Under 40.

1959 -

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Hilde Heynen

Heynen is a professor of Architectural Theory in Belgium. Her main research focus is modernism, modernity, and gender in architecture. One of her notable publications, Architecture and Modernity. A Critique, explores the relationship between modernity, dwelling, and architecture. Recently, in another one of her publications, Negotiating Domesticity, Heynen explores the relationship between architecture, gender, and domesticity in the home.

1959 -

Zaha Hadid

1950 -2016

Hadid was a British Iraqi architect who established herself as an icon with her signature future-forward architecture and product designs. Known as the “Queen of the curve” Hadid became the first woman to receive the Pritzker Architecture Prize in 2004. She was also awarded the Stirling Prize in 2010 & 2011, and was made a Dame by Queen Elizabeth II. She was also the first woman to be awarded the Royal Gold Medal from the Royal Institute of British Architects. Her firm, Zaha Hadid Architects, continues her legacy by continuing to produce ground-breaking work even after her passing.

Yvonne Farrell & Shelley McNamara

1951 - / 1952 -

Farrell and McNamara founded Grafton Architects in Dublin in 1978, and have since gone on to win multiple awards for their work. The World Building of the Year Award (2008), the RIBA International Prize (2016) and the Royal Gold Medal (2020) are a few instances of their acclaim. Their first publication, Dialogue and Translation: Grafton Architects, illustrates the influence that cultural and geographical context has on their designs. The duo also won the 2020 Pritzker Prize, becoming the fourth and fifth women to receive this honour since its inception in 1979.

Odile Decq

1955 -

Decq’s approach to architecture has led to her reputation as an unconventional and radical designer. In 1985, she and her husband, Benoit Cornette, founded ODBC. The name of the firm was later changed to Studio Odile Decq after Benoit’s death in 1998, as a result of her frustration with the media for not crediting her work correctly. She is also the founder of Confluence: Institute for Innovation and Creative Strategies in Architecture, established in 2014, to imagine different avenues of architectural education not restrained by strict historical institutions.

Kazuyo Sejema

1956 -

Japanese architect Kazayo Sejima’s work focuses on the social use and potential adaptation of space, only considering a project complete once its users breathe life into it through activity. Her signature style features pure forms. Smooth surfaces, like glass and marble form the architectural basis of her contemporary projects. Sejima founded the Tokyo-based architecture firm SANAA with partner Ryue Nishizawa in 1995, and was the second woman ever to receive the Pritzker Prize in 2010.

Maya Lin

1959 -

As an American architect and artist, Lin is known for her design of the Vietnam Veterans’ Memorial in Washington DC. Her winning submission in a nationwide competition to design the memorial catapulted her into national scrutiny that examined her age, race, gender and design practices. In her own words, she describes her designs as interpretations of “the natural world through science, history, politics, and culture, creating a remarkable and highly acclaimed body of work in art and architecture.


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Tarna Klitzner

Klitzner is a Cape Town-based landscape architect, and currently teaches at the University of Cape Town. One of her most notable projects is the Violence Prevention Through Urban Upgrading (VPUU) project, in collaboration with architects Chamberlain and Irving. VPUU is an urban renewal project in Khayelitsha, and seeks to provide safer access routes to and from schools through a network of playgrounds, playing courts, commercial squares and pedestrian walkways. The project also seeks to create more spaces for positive human interactions within that community.

1960 -

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Dorte Mandrup

Mandrup is a Danish architect who is renowned for her artistic and conceptual approach to sustainable architecture drawn from her studies in sculpture and ceramics. She founded her eponymous firm in 1999 in Copenhagen and has since completed a number of award winning projects including the Wadden Sea Centre and the IKEA Hubhult, gaining her international recognition. Additionally, Mandrup is the Vice Chairman of the Louisiana Museum of Modern Art and teaches at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts.

1961 -

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Mabel O. Wilson

Wilson is an architect, designer and activist with a focus on politics and cultural memory in black America. In a field that often overlooks questions of race, culture and identity, she is vocal in discourse concerning the possibilities and struggle for a just world. She was appointed Professor of Architecture at Columbia University in 2007, and acts as Associate Director at the Institute for Research in African American Studies. Wilson is a founding member of Who Builds Your Architecture?, an advocacy project aimed at educating the architectural profession about the problems of globalisation and labour.

1963 -

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Jeanne Gang

Gang, founder of Studio Gang in Chicago, USA, is the designer of the Aqua Tower, the tallest building ever to be designed by a female architect. She has been featured in TIME Magazine’s 100 Most Influential People of 2019 for her numerous architectural achievements. Other notable projects include the Polis Station Research Project, which showcases her ability to use architecture as a catalyst for socioeconomic and environmental change.

1964 -

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Joanne Lees

Lees is a director at DesigncoLab in Durban, South Africa, and a programme manager for FLOW, a social change project pilot. Her work includes architecture, research and policy development in planning, urban regeneration and the informal economy. Her work also focuses on inclusive sustainable development and spatial transformation. Lees and her all-women team won the international Housing Generator Competition in 1997.

1964 -

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Jo da Silva

Da Silva trained and worked as a post-disaster engineer, and went on to found Arup International Development. She currently acts as director of the company, and has been featured on a list of Management Today’s 35 Women Under 35 for her work on engineering in developing countries and humanitarian crisis zones. Her work in Rwanda, Sri Lanka and Nepal, as well as notable work on the ACCCRN, focuses on building sustainable resilient cities to weather the risk of climate change.

1967 -

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Marina Tabassum

Tabassum is a Bangladeshi architect known for her design of the Bait-ur-Rouf Mosque, which earned her the Aga Khan Award. Her work is celebrated for its prioritisation of climate, site, materiality, light, local culture and history through contemporary architecture. She has participated in the Venice Biennale for Architecture under the theme Freespace. Tabassum’s designs for fluid, communal living through clusters and courtyards are inspired by local rural examples.

1968 -

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